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俄国n decorations, old or 新?

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街区

苏联/俄罗斯联邦有着发行装饰邮票的悠久传统。第一个是1933年发行的《红旗勋章》。
2016年初,俄罗斯联邦发行了一张带有18张邮票的邮票‘state decorations’(从现在开始称为“区块”)。

块。

本文的目的是比较‘state decorations’带有帝国时代和苏联时期的装饰品。
即使名称相同,我也会尝试解释为什么可以将它们视为‘new’。在其存在期间,装饰的形状和/或色带可能会发生变化。
例如法国Légiond的许多不同型号’众所周知,但基本模型始终保持不变。 1918年,海军维多利亚十字勋章的丝带从蓝色更改为深红色。
当发生此类变化时,请勿将装饰视为新装饰。但是,当装饰的外观发生很大变化时(例如,从胸前的星星变成悬挂在缎带上的奖章),或者当授予装饰的原因发生变化时,该变化非常重要,足以将装饰视为‘new’。俄罗斯联邦的网络棋牌游戏排行榜和装饰品可以分为几类。第一个集群由英雄和荣誉头衔组成。在街区有两个英雄装饰品。
下一小组包括四个平民和军事订单。对于军事指挥官和军官来说,一共有六个网络棋牌游戏排行榜。勇气勋章自立。序列中的下一个是两个优点顺序的簇。最后三个网络棋牌游戏排行榜是针对俄罗斯联邦公民的。本文将指定不同的群集。

类别1:英雄

在苏联时期,英雄分为三组:苏维埃联盟的英雄;社会主义劳动的英雄和母亲的女英雄。其中两个头衔重新出现在俄罗斯联邦;这些是‘俄罗斯联邦英雄(金星奖章)和‘俄罗斯联邦劳动英雄’。两种英雄装饰都是
块。当比较苏联英雄和俄罗斯联邦英雄时,可以断定这些网络棋牌游戏排行榜是旧的,尽管功能区已更改。金星勋章的徽章与苏联时期的徽章相同,但劳动英雄的明星看起来有所不同,因为新的国家纹章代替了锤子和镰刀。授予它们的理由根本没有太大变化。属于荣誉头衔的装饰品(例如俄罗斯联邦的受尊敬的军事导航员)不在名单中,因此不再赘述。这些荣誉称号的制度与苏维埃联盟的制度相同。

金星奖章

第二类:平民和军事网络棋牌游戏排行榜

这个集群由圣使徒安德鲁勋章,祖国功绩勋章,大烈士圣凯瑟琳勋章和亚历山大·涅夫斯基勋章组成。所有这些网络棋牌游戏排行榜都是在帝国时期扎根的。¹最初被称为使徒圣安德鲁的网络棋牌游戏排行榜是帝国俄罗斯’是最高的头衔,授予国家元首和皇室元首,但有时也因在战争中取得的巨大成就而被授予。新的圣安德鲁教团由两个师组成:民事和军事师。军事部门在王冠下有两把交叉的剑,网络棋牌游戏排行榜的链条已更改。邮票上显示了来自民政部门的新网络棋牌游戏排行榜。订单已明显更新。

¹在街区中,第四层装饰是圣乔治勋章,我把它放在第3组中。

圣安德鲁勋章。

The Order For Merit to the Fatherland is inspired by the Imperial Order of the White Eagle.² The badges are different, the name is not the same and the ribbon has a different colour. This too is a 新 order. In the Soviet period there used to be a similar order called the Order for Service to the 首页land (in the Armed Forces of the USSR) but there is no connection between these decorations.

功勋祖国勋章和白鹰勋章。

The Order of St. Catherine the Great Martyr has the same name as the Imperial Order for Ladies. The 新 order was established in 2012 to honour 俄国ns and foreigners for outstanding contributions toward peacekeeping, charity, humanitarian efforts, and the preservation of cultural heritage. The badge and the ribbon have also been changed, so we are looking at a 新 order.
²“白鹰波兰勋章”于1831年纳入俄罗斯帝国的奖励体系。

圣凯瑟琳大烈士。

亚历山大·涅夫斯基勋章历史悠久– from the Imperial times, the 前苏联 and the present Federation. Its shape during the Imperial period and the present one are very alike; the plaque from the Soviet period has no common aspects. In the Imperial period this was a one class order and at present its ribbon is used to recognise long and faithful service of government employees by a roman cipher. This means this is a 新 order.

亚历山大·涅夫斯基勋章。

第三类:军事网络棋牌游戏排行榜

此集群由圣乔治勋章,苏沃洛夫勋章,乌沙科夫勋章,朱可夫勋章,库图佐夫勋章和纳希莫夫勋章组成。圣乔治勋章与帝国时期同名的勋章有关。徽章和色带的形状相同。赋予它的原因也大致相同。这意味着订单很旧。在苏联时期,缎带(橙黄黑橙橙黑)用于荣耀勋章。可以在许多与第二次世界大战有关的邮票上找到该丝带。³

圣乔治勋章。

在苏联时期,建立了苏沃洛夫,乌沙科夫,库图佐夫和纳希莫夫的网络棋牌游戏排行榜。4 The badges of these orders were breast stars, which varied according to their classes. The present orders are single class orders and are now worn hanging on a ribbon, also the reasons for bestowing the orders have been changed. These four orders are therefore 新.

苏纳万的网络棋牌游戏排行榜。

³ 在最近对克里米亚的占领之后,俄罗斯人戴着了这个缎带。
4 亚历山大·瓦西里耶维奇·苏沃洛夫伯爵是战地元帅,米哈伊尔·伊拉里奥诺维奇·哥列尼雪夫·库图佐夫亲王也是如此。因此,带有名字的网络棋牌游戏排行榜是给陆军和空军人员使用的。费奥多尔·费奥多罗维奇·乌沙科夫(FyodorFyodorovich Ushakov)是18世纪俄罗斯最杰出的海军指挥官,帕维尔·斯蒂芬诺维奇·纳希莫夫(Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov)在克里米亚战争期间是海军上将。因此,这些名称的订单适用于海军人员。
The 朱可夫勋章 was established as a 新 order in 1994, it has no relation to a former decoration and is therefore 新.

朱可夫的网络棋牌游戏排行榜。

类别4:勇气的顺序
The Order of Courage was established as a 新 order in 1994. It is therefore 新. In 1988 the Soviet Order of Personal Courage was established. The reasons for bestowing it are roughly the same as for the present order, but the badge and ribbon are very different. This order was never depicted on a stamp.

勇气令。

类别5:功绩令

There are two orders for merit: the Order For Military Merit and the Order For Naval Merit. Both orders were established after the Soviet period and bear no relation to an older decoration. They are 新.

朱可夫勋章
军事功绩令和娜塔/功绩令。

类别6:公民网络棋牌游戏排行榜
In this cluster we find the Order of Honour, the Order of Friendship and the Order of Parental Glory. The Order of Honour is a continuity of the order from the Soviet period named Order of the Badge of Honour. In the Soviet period the name of this order was changed into Order of Honour and the badge was attached to a ribbon. The present badge and ribbon however are completely different and the reason for bestowing this order is different too, so this is a 新 order.

荣誉勋章。

The Order of Friendship is awarded to 俄国n and foreign nationals for special merit in strengthening peace. Its predecessor, the Soviet Order of Friendship of Peoples, was an order for individuals and for organisations. The ribbon and the badge are different, therefore this too is a 新 order.

友谊的顺序。

The Order of Parental Glory is definitely 新. It is the successor of the Mother Heroine. The 新 order differs from the old one because it is now
被授予父母双方,父母现在只需要生产七个而不是十个孩子即可。

父母/荣耀顺序。订购女主角。

俄罗斯的订单数量大大超过了其他大多数国家。毫无疑问,俄罗斯联邦将像过去几年一样继续发行描绘装饰的邮票。
在此感谢Jan van den Brink的有用评论。

资料来源
瓦尔伯勒的Récompensesd'Esat de laFédérationde Russie F67400伊尔基希2014
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of orders, decorations, and medals of 俄国
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orders, decorations, and medals of the 前苏联
http://www.medals.org.uk

本文先前发表在《 Decorare nr.36》杂志上

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